Pages 332-334 - Namra


What is intelligence?

It is an abstract concept that has many aspects to it and is hard to define definitively. Different levels of ability in a certain area result in different levels of intelligence.

Exercise 16.1

Albert Einstein
  • Intellectual skills
    - Brainy
    - Maths literate
    - Ability to create new theories

  • Influence our understanding
    - Our knowledge broadens as more theories are created on the basis of his theories
    - His subject areas(mainly Physics and Maths) require large amounts of working mental capacity

Temples in Tikai, Guatemala
  • Intelectual skills
    - Use of Applied physics without modern apparatus
    - Talented architect
    - Brainy
    - Artistic
    - Gifted


  • Influence our understanding
    - Looks appealing to the eye
    - Monument an architect nowadays may look up to
    - Application of hard work



Game of Chess
  • Intelectual skills
    - Use of Logic/ Probability [Maths]
    - Requirement of high attention span


  • Influence our understanding
    - High levels of concentration needed
    - Ability to think fast

Exercise 16.2


Exercise 16.3

  • Computers without human input [works without feeding commands]
  • Basic hardware and Software exist, and everything else the computer invents on its own
  • Independant
  • Ability to create its own programs and builds itself

The Turing test is a test for intelligence in a computer, requiring that a human being should be unable to distinguish the machine from another human being by using the replies to questions put to both. If the judge was unable to determine which contestant was human and which was the computer, he suggested that the computer should be classified as intelligent. He saying that ifa computer could pass off as a human it should be intelligent backed this. Alan Turing, a famous mathematician and computer scientist, proposed it.

CAPTCHA (a program or system intended to distinguish human from machine input, typically as a way of thwarting spam and automated extraction of data from websites) is the modernized version of distinguishing a human from a computer and is derived from the Turing test. This test is often seen on the web for verification and identity purposes. On the web, they are seen in places like forums or when creating a new account for something.
CAPTCHA is an abbreviation for completely automated public Turing test to tell computers and humans apart. Nowadays, they are used to prevent spams.

An example of captcha is shown below

images.jpeg

As seen in the figure, CAPTCHA is legible to a human being but a computer will face difficulties reading it because humans can read distorted text but current computer programs cannot.

Examples of impossible CAPTCHA's

Deep blue and Watson example page 333

Artificial intelligence refers to systems that simulate intelligence through a series of quite rigid facts or rules. Its focus is to create a human like intelligence appearance even if the intelligence is differed vastly when compared to humans. It focuses on one area of knowledge rather than a series of generalizations.

Computational intelligence focuses on creating systems that think in the same way of humans think. It focuses on creating systems that can learn, develop and reach optimal solutions based on past experience, similar to humans.

Exercise 16.4

a) The book contains the chinese symbols
b) THe computer wouldn't know chinese, the humans who know chinese would feels the computer
c) Yes, if they are familiar with the language and no, it they are not. The textbook and the room are inanimate objects.
d) It does matter because the knower would be required to understand the words, and they can only do this if they understand chinese.

Pg 335-342 - Mohamed Selim


What is an expert system?


A computer application that performs a task that would otherwise be performed by a human expert. For example, there are expert systems that can diagnose human illnesses, make financial forecasts, and schedule routes for delivery vehicles. Some expert systems are designed to take the place of human experts, while others are designed to aid them.
Expert systems are part of a general category of computer applications known as artificial intelligence . To design an expert system, one needs a knowledge engineer, an individual who studies how human experts make decisions and translates the rules into terms that a computer can understand. (For boolean logic)

Components of an expert system?


  • Expert system shell: set of program that allow to build an expert system.
  • User Interface: questions to the user and accepts inputs from them.
  • Knowledge base: data and facts which form the knowledge in the specific knowledge domain. e.g. symptoms for illnesses in medical expert systems.
  • Inference engine: Matches the user's input from the user interface with the data contained in the knowledge base to find appropriate answers.

Advantages of expert systems:
  • Provides consistent answers for repetitive decisions, processes and tasks
  • Holds and maintains significant levels of information
  • Encourages organizations to clarify the logic of their decision-making
  • Never "forgets" to ask a question, as a human might
  • Can work round the clock
  • Can be used by the user more frequently
  • A multi-user expert system can serve more users at a time
Disadvantages of expert systems:
  • Lacks common sense needed in some decision making
  • Cannot make creative responses as human expert would in unusual circumstances
  • Domain experts not always able to explain their logic and reasoning
  • Errors may occur in the knowledge base, and lead to wrong decisions
  • Cannot adapt to changing environments, unless knowledge base is changed

Decision tree


This can include boolean logic which includes only to answers. e.g. 1 or 0/ yes or no. This is a very simple and concise way to arrive at an answer but this system enables the user to arrive at a limited amount of results.

Many decisions include the boolean logic but they move further than one answer. For example, medical diagnosis systems would try to find out what is wrong with you by asking many questions.
Example, http://www.myelectronicmd.com/.

Inference Rules


The act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true
E.g.:

IF X has gills THEN X is a fish
IF X is a fish THEN X lives in water
IF X lives in water THEN X can swim

Fuzzy Logic


A form of algebra employing a range of values from "true" to "false" that is used in making decisions with imprecise data. The outcome of an operation is assigned a value between 0 and 1 corresponding to its degree of truth. Fuzzy logic is used, for example, in artificial intelligence systems. This logic can consider two answers to be the same.

Searching


This is when some users are looking for specific data. Searches depend upon the software used and the available computing power. Power is needed because filtering the large amount of data requires speed and accuracy.

Natural Language Processing

Natural language processing (NLP) is the ability of a computer program to understand human speech as it is spoken. NLP is a component of artificial intelligence.

Neural Networks

A computer system modeled on the human brain and nervous system.

Examples of some expert systems: